Metronidazole is a nitroimidazole antibiotic, anti-protozoan, and anti-amoebic drug used in the treatment of infections caused in the various parts of the body. Metronidazole is used in the treatment of skin infections of the respiratory tract, vagina, outer skin, joints of various skin areas etc. This drug is actually famous worldwide in various popular trade names like Metro Gel, Flagyl, and Flagyl ER etc. The chemical formula of Metronidazole is C6H9N3O3. Various diseases like Bacterial vaginosis; Ameobiasis, etc. are treated with the aid of this drug. Generally, anaerobic bacterial infections are treated with the aid of Metronidazole.
How Metronidazole Works: Metronidazole enters into the microorganism`s body via the process of diffusion. In case of sensitive protozoa or in the case of anaerobic bacteria, the process of entry of Metronidazole is selective absorption. Pyruvate oxide-reductase helps in the production of reduced from of ferredoxin within the organism`s body. Metronidazole reacts with this reduced ferredoxin and forms nitroso intermediates. These nitroso intermediates reacts with the enzymes present within the microorganism`s body, which contain cysteine. Thus, thioether and sulfinamides bonds are formed, and thus the enzyme is rendered inactive. Most of these enzymes are essential for the survival of the organism, and hence Metronidazole helps in killing the organism directly.
Dosages Of Metronidazole: The dosage conditions of Metronidazole depend on the treatment for which it is being used. For example, in case of Ameobiasis 500 to approximately 750 mg of Metronidazole is given for 5 to 7 days for 3 - 4 times a day, or as directed by the physician. In case of Pseudo membranous Colitis, Metronidazole is given 250 to 500 mg per day, 3 to 4 times a day, for 10 to 15 days. In case of Trichomoniasis, the patient along with his or her sexual partner is treated with Metronidazole if found infected. Either, it is given as 500 mg tablets for twice daily, for a period of 7 days or is given as 2 gm directly once for the same period.
Precautions And Side Effects Of Metronidazole: The dose of Metronidazole must be administered by a doctor. The individual must avoid taking an overdose of the drug, and in case of overdose the doctor must be contacted immediately. The women who are pregnant or breast feeding must let the doctor know about the medical details. The side effects of Metronidazole includes symptoms like headache, nausea, vomiting, pain and even swelling on the site where the drug was injected, dizziness, constipation, loss of appetite in some cases, and other allergic reactions. The allergic reactions shown by Metronidazole include symptoms like itching, hives, redness of the area, rash, stools containing blood, diarrhea, seizures, burning feel in various areas of the body etc. In case of Metronidazole overdose, the doctor must be contacted immediately and the recommended medicines must be taken. Generally, if a drug dose is missed, then there are no side effects seen in case of Metronidazole.
Drug Interactions: Metronidazole shows 6 major and 153 moderate drug interactions. The major drug interactions shown by Metronidazole include drugs like Amprenavir, Anisindione, Busulfan, Warfarin, Dicumarol, and sodium oxybate. The moderate drug interactions of Metronidazole include drugs like Butalbital, Caffeine, Brentuximab, Fluorouracil, Lovastatin, Niacin, Ethanol, Levonorgestrel, Ephedrine, etc... The disease interaction shown by Metronidazole includes diseases like Colitis, Blood Dyscrasias, Neurologic Toxicity, and Liver Disease etc.